Dooly's first seat of county government was established in 1824, three years after the original county charter, in a community named Berrien. However, most of the early settlers located on the banks of the Flint River. So in 1836 the county seat was moved to Drayton, one mile east of the river. In 1839 the State Legislature authorized the county seat be returned to its original site, apparently in order to be in a more centralized location in the large county. On February 8, 1841, the county seat formally assumed the name Vienna, after the beautiful Austrian capital on the Danube River.
A preliminary historic resource survey conducted quite some time ago indicated the presence of 137 structures which may have historic or architectural significance. In 2005, the City's Central Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. This district includes the entire downtown and immediate outlying neighborhoods.
Five other properties are also individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places:
Dooly County Courthouse, Second Street
Stovall-Woodward-Gregory House, Union Street
Akin-Bush-Bradley House, Union Street
Vienna Rosenwald School, Ninth Street
Vienna High & Industrial School, Ninth Street
Dooly County Courthouse Stovall-Woodward-Gregory House
Akin-Bush-Bradley House Vienna Rosenwald School
Vienna High & Industrial School